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What Is 4WD and How Does It Work?

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All-wheel drive (4WD, 4×4, AWD) is a type of car construction in which torque from the engine drives both axles of the car. Four-wheel drive (4WD) is used on SUVs to increase cross-country ability. Its use on ordinary cars improves driving, not off-road qualities.

Types of 4WD

There are several types of 4WD. They differ in the scheme of operation. For complete information, you can also check out here.

Part-time 4WD

Under normal conditions, engine power is transmitted to one axle (rear or front). If necessary, the four-wheel drive is activated using a special lever or button. This is the simplest and cheapest type of “four-wheel drive” used for offroad driving. This approach usually does not involve a differential that distributes the torque between the axles. Therefore, it cannot be operated constantly on the highway. Otherwise, fuel consumption increases and tire and transmission wear accelerates. On a hard surface, you need to turn off the four-wheel drive. It should be used only in mud, sand, ice or snow. Its disadvantage is that the lack of a differential between the axles worsens the car’s handling on ice and wet asphalt.

Automatic 4WD

Like the Part-time system described above, this type of 4WD is activated only when necessary. However, automation does this instead of the driver. Communication is implemented using a viscous coupling or multi-disc clutch under electronic control. The second axle is activated when the wheels of the main driving axle slip. The system provides good driving qualities on sand, dirt, or a rough winter road. However, it is poorly adapted for off-road driving: the second axle is connected too late when the first one has already slipped. A connected drive based on a viscous coupling cannot be used offroad for a long time. The unit may fail due to overheating. Some models are equipped with a clutch pre-lock button, which allows you to easily overcome a problematic section.

Full-time 4WD

In cars with this type of 4WD, all power is always transmitted to four wheels. They are divided by means of an inter-axle differential, which improves handling, reduces tire wear and reduces the load on the units. To improve offroad capabilities, “Full-time 4WD” machines can be equipped with additional locking differentials (between the wheels and between the axles). This function is implemented in two versions: automatic or manual. This type of machine is the least prone to skidding and has the best offroad driving. If there is a differential lock, it should be turned on only before overcoming mud, snow, sand, or a long slippery climb. In other cases, it only worsens driving characteristics and reduces the service life of tires and units.

Selectable 4WD

This is the best type of 4WD, and it combines the advantages of all of the above. Its only drawback is the high price. A car with multi-mode four-wheel drive can drive with one or two driving axles. The driver himself chooses the state of the differentials. On asphalt, the front axle is enough. On a slippery road, you should turn on full 4-wheel drive, and while offroad, lock the differential (on the most difficult sections, all three – inter-axle and inter-wheel differentials).

4WD: principles of operation

The all-wheel drive system with a viscous clutch is most widely used. It includes manual transmission or automatic transmission, clutch, transfer box, cardan and main gears, inter-wheel and inter-axle differentials.

This option of all-wheel drive is used on cars with front- and rear-wheel drive. In the first case, the gearbox is installed across the axis of the car; in the second – along it. This affects the design features of the “dispenser” and cardans.

The clutch on the manual transmission performs two functions:

  • It protects the transmission from overloads
  • Ensures a short-term disconnection of the engine and gearbox during gear shifting

Automatic transmissions are equipped with a torque converter that performs a similar function.

The transfer case, which includes a reduction gear and an inter-axle differential, distributes the torque between the axles and increases it when the “reduced gear” (low range) is engaged.

To improve off-road characteristics, the transmission is equipped with an interaxial differential lock. In the simplest case, it is automatically blocked by a viscous coupling unit. More advanced models use a multi-disc friction clutch and a self-locking Torsen differential.

On cars designed for off-road driving, automatic or manual locking of differentials between the wheels is installed. The system works as follows:

  • Torque from the engine is transmitted through the clutch to the gearbox
  • Engine power is distributed to the axles through the transfer case
  • Cardan gears actuate the inter-wheel differentials of the rear and front axles

Which type of 4WD drive is better?

All-wheel drive, connected in manual mode, is rarely used. Activation of the second axis using a friction clutch is more common. It can be controlled by electronics, read data on the speed of rotation of the wheels, or be blocked when heated due to slipping. For rare off-road trips, you can buy a car with permanent four-wheel drive and a differential that is locked with a viscous coupling. If you expect long trips on sand and dirt, it is worth overpaying for a multi-mode four-wheel drive, which behaves equally well on the highway, in snow or on a demineralized dirt road.

Advantages of 4WD

Compared to cars with one driving axle, four-wheel drive cars have the following advantages:

  • Improved acceleration on slippery surfaces
  • Increased offroad capabilities
  • Good driving stability.

The last statement is only true for full 4-wheel drive systems. An automatic 4WD system with a high clutch can bring unpleasant surprises, unexpectedly connecting a second driving axle.

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4th of July Sales

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4th of July means a day filled with fireworks, barbecues and festive celebrations of American independence. But in between all the festivities, this holiday offers a ton of online shopping deals  Get discounts on grills and swimsuits, plus find deals on travel essentials, fashion, bedding, electronics and more.

Abercrombie & Fitch: Take 20% off nearly everything at Abercrombie & Fitch today.

Act+Acre: Hair care is 30% off site wide, so treat your tresses for less.

Adidas: Shop athletic gear and loungewear and save $30 when you spend $100 or more. Use code SAVEMORE.

Aera: Through July 5, take 40% off diffusers for pleasant aromas throughout your home.

Albany Park: Right now at Albany Park, enjoy low prices — up to 35% off — on cozy yet sophisticated home furnishings.

Alex Mill: Even if you’re not familiar with Alex Mill, you’ll likely recognize the brand’s workwear-inspired jumpsuits — and right now the brand is offering rare discounts of up to 50% off.

Allbirds: This Underscored-favorite brand is offering up to 50% off a ton of men’s and women’s footwear styles — including the Tree Runners, Wool Runners and more — now through July 7.

Allform: Save 20% sitewide, thanks to Allform’s Summer Sale, when you use code JULY20. Plus, get free and fast delivery on your order.

Alterre: Customizable shoes are up to 80% off sitewide during Alterre’s Midsummer Sample Sale, now through July 7.

Amazon: You can always count on Amazon to bring sizzling sales to the table, and right now you can shop summertime deals on all the essentials.

Amerisleep: You can get $450 off any mattress with code AS450. Plus, pillows, mattress toppers and bamboo sheets are all 20% off with code USA20.

Anthropologie: Take up to 40% off elevated bohemian home goods and an extra 50% off sale fashion.

Apple: Apple’s Back-to-School promotion is already live, meaning college students and educators can get a gift card worth up to $150, plus 20% off AppleCare (on top of already-discounted pricing) on Mac and iPad products.

Arhaus: Artisan-crafted seating from armchairs to sectionals and more is 15% off or more during this summertime sale at Arhaus.

Artifact Uprising: Calendars, photo prints, stationery and more are 15% off sitewide and 20% off orders of $150 or more. Use code SUMMERDECOR.

Ashley: During the annual Stars & Stripes Sale, shop furniture and mattress deals for the entire home.

Auraglow: Using code CNN20OFF will let you take 20% off your entire order, now through July 5 on the brand’s official Amazon storefront.

Avocado: Sustainably made mattresses and bedding are up to $500 off, no code needed.

Awara: Score up to half off all mattresses.

BaubleBar: Take an extra 20% off sale items — from jewelry to phone cases and more — during this 4th of July event.

Ban.do: Save 25% on super-cute homewares, apparel, accessories and more through July 5.

Bear: Score sitewide savings, plus get free sleep accessories with the purchase of a mattress.

Beautyrest: Save up to $1,200 on luxury mattresses and adjustable bases.

Bed Bath & Beyond: Take 20% off any one item during the Beyond Big Savings event, plus find savings on a ton of furniture and home essentials.

Benchmade Modern: Take 20% off custom sofas and more now through July 8.

Best Buy: Shop steep discounts on all your favorite tech and appliances.

Big Fig: Take $500 off mattresses engineered for plus-size sleepers.

Bio Bidet: During the Red, White and Blue Savings Event, find discounts on a bunch of bidet styles.

Birthdate: Shop personalized astrology candles and jewelry and score up to half off during Birthdate’s Birthday Sale, happening now through June 30.

Bokksu: We love these curated boxes of Japanese snacks, and now you’ll get up to 20% off with code FREEDOM24.

Brooklinen: This brand has earned top marks on linen and cotton sheets, plus rave reviews on cozy socks, laundry detergent, down comforters and more. Enjoy 15% off sitewide and up to 35% off bundles through June 27.

Brooklyn Bedding: This brand makes mattresses that work to regulate your body temperature on multiple levels. Shop 25%-off sitewide savings now using code JULY25.

Buffy: Score ultra-soft sheets and plush comforters for 20% off or more.

Burrow: Find deals up to a whopping 75% off. Bestselling indoor and outdoor seating are up for grabs, plus storage, accent pieces, rugs and much, much more.

Crate & Barrel: Find savings across categories, from rugs to outdoor furniture to kitchen essentials and more.

Crocs: Save up to 50% on these shoes beloved for travel, gardening and everyday wear.

Cuup: A bunch of Cuup’s iconic bras are just $50 right now.

Zoma: Don’t miss this promo: Save 25% off any mattress when using code SLEEP25 at checkout.

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Bud BagsTM Launches The World’s Standard Secured Delivery Bag

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Introducing Bud Bags an eco-friendly and secure new way to transport cannabis. These biodegradable courier bags, blend sustainability and security. These bags are for the environmentally conscious and engineered for unparalleled protection.

Bud Bags from BUD BAGS on Vimeo.

These bags have tamper-evident security made with features to detect and deter theft. Often they are equipped with unique seals to indicate when unauthorized use or tampering has occurred. These bags are typically used for the transportation of valuable items like cash, cannabis, or documents.

Most bags are made of plastic and mylar so they are not biodegradable. However these bags can be cusomized.

Bud Bags allows anything to be transported without knowledge. They are opaque with an adhesive strip that let you know it’s been tampered with, which means that if something’s missing, it is the company not the courier.

Bud bags is working hand and hand with ASTM International, an international standards company in transportation. ASTM International, serves over 12,000 ASTM standards operate globally. The standards are defined and set by them, as they improve the lives of millions every day. Combined with our innovative business services, they enhance performance and help everyone have confidence in the things they buy and use.

Its good to be carried by the best.

 

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The Perfect Travel and Summer Sandal

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Ipanema sandals are based in Brazil, and the sandal is named after one of the most famous beaches worldwide. Ipanema sandals are made with a durable Flexpand 100% recyclable plastic and use at least 30% recycled materials, while 99% of all factory waste is recycled or reused.

I Turkey this summer. Last year I really needed a sandal that looked great but handled well in water. Have you ever notice that a lot of summer shoes slip and slide when it rains? Also the beaches of the Mediterian  They take up no room in suitcase or a purse, are incredibly light being that they are all made of rubber. It feels like you are wearing nothing at all, yet are sturdy. These are perfect and you will not need another pair of sandals for anything.

I got the Ipanema Women’s Class Edge Glow Sandals ($32). The Ipanema Shimmer sandals are so soft, and feel great. They are silent when you walk in them, with no noise on the ground and no noise of anything hitting your foot. They also have a section on top that connects to the band around your ankle; this is the shimmer part. The strap is adjustable and o nce adjusted you do not need to undo it each time, making them very easy to slip on since the material is so stretchy.

I will definitely be ordering more.

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The Sweetest Mother’s Day Gifts

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This Mother’s Day there are so many sweet ways to show you love her. Some of our favorite treats are on sale now.

M&M’s Mom Dispenser

Create personalized M&M’S chocolate candies to fill this dispenser for Mom’s birthday or Mother’s Day.

Your customized treats will be delivered by the handful with every twist of the turnkey.

The taste is the tried and true that you always love. With bright colors and fun prints, Mom will love everything about this treat. It’s a perfect gift with a keepsake candy dispenser that can be used again and again. Truly the gift that keeps giving.

Ethel M Chocolates 5-Piece Truffle Sampler

Truffles are always the answer! Our favorite flavors are now available in a NEW 5-piece Sampler Collection. Creamy, rich ganache filling is expertly coated by gourmet dark, milk or white chocolate shells. Made in the traditional style from a cream and butter-based chocolate ganache, each exquisite chocolate gem offers an exploration of flavor in every bite. 

Happy Mother’s Day!

 

Cover art by Zoe Schaeffer on Unsplash

 

 

 

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Cabaret

M is for the. . . 

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Many ways you can show your mother, or the mother of your children, or anyone who is like a mother to you, just how much you appreciate and love them. Here are a few suggestions that will make you the hero of Mother’s Day! 

Back by popular demand is Jessica Sherr in her sold-out one-woman show entitled Bette Davis Ain’t for Sissies.  Sherr is a joy to watch as she reveals faces of this legendary actress you’ve never seen—her disappointments, her sorrows. 

Her characterization is so spot on that you’ll want to hug her when Bette is hurt and cheer for her when she’s on top of the world. Sherr’s ability to convey the mercurial nature of this iconic star is a marvel to behold.   

Don’t miss her this time around—it’s a real tour de force performance and one every mother will love. Sherr will be performing this well-written and gorgeously performed piece at the Triad on West 72nd Street on May 15 only.   If you’re in a sentimental mood this year, you’re invited to an Unveiling of The Baby Promise, An Elegant Collection of Mother’s Promise Rings, by Shana Farr on Thursday, May 9th from 5 – 7 pm at The Players, 16 Gramercy Park South. You may recognize Shana from her many cabaret appearances both here and abroad. Not only is she an accomplished actress and singer, but a mother and accomplished jewelry designer as well.   

Shana and Austin

What is the Baby Promise? It’s a vow she wrote when her son, Austin, was born and it lovingly expresses what every mother wishes for her child, and for herself, but never fully articulates. The complete version is available in a book she wrote of the same name, featuring artwork by–who else?–Austin. The Baby Promise Ring is a reminder of that sacred bond between a mother and child, exquisitely executed and available through Amazon.  Check it out at Thebabypromise.com.   

The ring is the quintessential way to express gratitude to the mother of your children; it comes with a copy of the book and is a perfect gift for any expectant mother.   

John Bolton

John Bolton

And if the lady you wish to honor is a fan of road trips, take her to the Bucks County Playhouse in Doylestown, PA for Noises Off, starring John Bolton.  It’s a quick ride from New York by car, with lots of interesting see there, like the Hammerstein home Highland Farms, or the shops in nearby Lambertville. Lots of fresh produce is available from roadside farmers. Or go in the other direction up to the Goodspeed Opera House in Connecticut, about two hours from the city. There you’ll have your choice of The Mystery of Edwin Drood starring Lenny Wolpe or A Complicated Woman with Klea Blackhurst.  You can’t miss! 

And if you insist on staying close to home, Lucky Stiff  by Flaherty & Ahrens is being brought to us by J2 Spotlight performing on West 45th Street. You can take her on Mother’s Day for the 3 pm matinee.    

As for me, my son and I play to celebrate by singing along to our favorite Broadway CDs while we play Scrabble. I just hope he lets me win at least once. 

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