Connect with us


What Is 4WD and How Does It Work?



All-wheel drive (4WD, 4×4, AWD) is a type of car construction in which torque from the engine drives both axles of the car. Four-wheel drive (4WD) is used on SUVs to increase cross-country ability. Its use on ordinary cars improves driving, not off-road qualities.

Types of 4WD

There are several types of 4WD. They differ in the scheme of operation. For complete information, you can also check out here.

Part-time 4WD

Under normal conditions, engine power is transmitted to one axle (rear or front). If necessary, the four-wheel drive is activated using a special lever or button. This is the simplest and cheapest type of “four-wheel drive” used for offroad driving. This approach usually does not involve a differential that distributes the torque between the axles. Therefore, it cannot be operated constantly on the highway. Otherwise, fuel consumption increases and tire and transmission wear accelerates. On a hard surface, you need to turn off the four-wheel drive. It should be used only in mud, sand, ice or snow. Its disadvantage is that the lack of a differential between the axles worsens the car’s handling on ice and wet asphalt.

Automatic 4WD

Like the Part-time system described above, this type of 4WD is activated only when necessary. However, automation does this instead of the driver. Communication is implemented using a viscous coupling or multi-disc clutch under electronic control. The second axle is activated when the wheels of the main driving axle slip. The system provides good driving qualities on sand, dirt, or a rough winter road. However, it is poorly adapted for off-road driving: the second axle is connected too late when the first one has already slipped. A connected drive based on a viscous coupling cannot be used offroad for a long time. The unit may fail due to overheating. Some models are equipped with a clutch pre-lock button, which allows you to easily overcome a problematic section.

Full-time 4WD

In cars with this type of 4WD, all power is always transmitted to four wheels. They are divided by means of an inter-axle differential, which improves handling, reduces tire wear and reduces the load on the units. To improve offroad capabilities, “Full-time 4WD” machines can be equipped with additional locking differentials (between the wheels and between the axles). This function is implemented in two versions: automatic or manual. This type of machine is the least prone to skidding and has the best offroad driving. If there is a differential lock, it should be turned on only before overcoming mud, snow, sand, or a long slippery climb. In other cases, it only worsens driving characteristics and reduces the service life of tires and units.

Selectable 4WD

This is the best type of 4WD, and it combines the advantages of all of the above. Its only drawback is the high price. A car with multi-mode four-wheel drive can drive with one or two driving axles. The driver himself chooses the state of the differentials. On asphalt, the front axle is enough. On a slippery road, you should turn on full 4-wheel drive, and while offroad, lock the differential (on the most difficult sections, all three – inter-axle and inter-wheel differentials).

4WD: principles of operation

The all-wheel drive system with a viscous clutch is most widely used. It includes manual transmission or automatic transmission, clutch, transfer box, cardan and main gears, inter-wheel and inter-axle differentials.

This option of all-wheel drive is used on cars with front- and rear-wheel drive. In the first case, the gearbox is installed across the axis of the car; in the second – along it. This affects the design features of the “dispenser” and cardans.

The clutch on the manual transmission performs two functions:

  • It protects the transmission from overloads
  • Ensures a short-term disconnection of the engine and gearbox during gear shifting

Automatic transmissions are equipped with a torque converter that performs a similar function.

The transfer case, which includes a reduction gear and an inter-axle differential, distributes the torque between the axles and increases it when the “reduced gear” (low range) is engaged.

To improve off-road characteristics, the transmission is equipped with an interaxial differential lock. In the simplest case, it is automatically blocked by a viscous coupling unit. More advanced models use a multi-disc friction clutch and a self-locking Torsen differential.

On cars designed for off-road driving, automatic or manual locking of differentials between the wheels is installed. The system works as follows:

  • Torque from the engine is transmitted through the clutch to the gearbox
  • Engine power is distributed to the axles through the transfer case
  • Cardan gears actuate the inter-wheel differentials of the rear and front axles

Which type of 4WD drive is better?

All-wheel drive, connected in manual mode, is rarely used. Activation of the second axis using a friction clutch is more common. It can be controlled by electronics, read data on the speed of rotation of the wheels, or be blocked when heated due to slipping. For rare off-road trips, you can buy a car with permanent four-wheel drive and a differential that is locked with a viscous coupling. If you expect long trips on sand and dirt, it is worth overpaying for a multi-mode four-wheel drive, which behaves equally well on the highway, in snow or on a demineralized dirt road.

Advantages of 4WD

Compared to cars with one driving axle, four-wheel drive cars have the following advantages:

  • Improved acceleration on slippery surfaces
  • Increased offroad capabilities
  • Good driving stability.

The last statement is only true for full 4-wheel drive systems. An automatic 4WD system with a high clutch can bring unpleasant surprises, unexpectedly connecting a second driving axle.

Continue Reading


Embracing the Virtual Marketplace: Upsurge of Online Garage Sales for Pre-Move Purging




As technology continues to redefine traditional norms, the concept of a virtual marketplace isn’t far from everyone’s lips. Forget your dusty, drive-by garage sales, the wind of change has blown in the direction of online garage sales, a contemporary trend resonating with Aussie homeowners. This new-fangled phenomenon seamlessly marries with another prevailing trend – pre-move purging, a systematic elimination of unwanted items before a move. When these two modern elements join forces, they offer a raft of fiscal, environmental, psychological, and space benefits. So, let’s dive headlong into the fray.

The Online Garage Sale Phenomenon

Strutting onto the stage in recent years, online garage sales have taken the world by storm. But what’s sparking this escalating popularity of swapping the lawn for a laptop? A key driver is convenience. Buyers can browse and bargain from the comfort of their homes, while sellers can pitch their wares to a massive audience, not limited by their local neighbourhood. Traditional garage sales, with their geographical limitations and weather dependencies, can’t hold a candle to this.

Benefits of Pre-Move Purging

Let’s turn our attention to pre-move purging, an exercise that allows homeowners to streamline their belonging before a move. Besides the obvious economic perk of making some quick bucks from selling unwanted items, there are hulking environmental benefits too. By rehoming perfectly functional items that would otherwise have wound up in a landfill, we’re giving our planet a much-needed breather. And as the saying goes, empty spaces, happy faces – the act of purging can regenerate mental and physical spaces in our abodes, turning chaos into calm.

Navigating the Australian Online Marketplace

In the sprawling savannah of the Australian online marketplace, there are numerous platforms vying for attention. Web stalwarts like Gumtree and eBay shoulder up against social media behemoth Facebook Marketplace, each offering a unique selling experience. An Aussie homeowner eyeing success in online garage sales might find some hedge-wisdom in taking stunning product photos, penning engaging descriptions, and practising patience.

How to Successfully Combine Pre-Move Purging with Online Garage Sales

Hooking up pre-move purging and online garage sales can be as easy as pie. Kick-off the exercise by being ruthless in selecting your sale items – if it’s gathering dust, it fits the bill. Create appealing product listings, balance between being descriptive and maintaining intrigue. Pricing requires juggling fair market value against your desire to sell, while the logistics challenge can be tackled using a mix of pick-up and delivery options.

Legal and Safety Aspects of Online Garage Sales in Australia

Bearing in mind the legal connotations and safety aspects of online garage sales is paramount for Australian homeowners. While it is largely a free-and-easy landscape, the Australian Consumer Law has rules for private sales and online auctions that all should be aware of. Ensuring safety during transactions, shirking scams, and keep a tight lid on personal data is just as important.

As we wrap up, the combo of pre-move purging and online garage sales is an unwrapped gift to Australians – a virtual golden goose. It’s a nifty way to pocket some extra cash, carve out de-cluttered spaces, and score a victory for the environment. So, why not give it a whirl? As the sands of time trickle, so too will the growth and evolution of our virtual marketplace. And from the looks of it, online garage sales in Australia have a bright and booming future ahead.

Continue Reading


Choosing the Right Horse Bit: A Comprehensive Guide




If you are a horse riding enthusiast, you must be aware of the importance of horse bit. When it comes to horse gear, selecting the horse bit can greatly enhance your riding experience. In this guide, we will delve into the types of horse bits available and provide you with valuable insights to help you navigate the process of finding the ideal one for your horse.

Understanding the Basics

Before delving into the types of horse bits, it is essential to grasp their components. A horse bit refers to a metal mouthpiece that attaches to the bridle and rests inside the horse’s mouth. It is connected to the reins and serves as a means for riders to communicate with their horses.

When choosing a horse bit, it is crucial to consider your requirements as well as your personal riding style and level of experience. Each horse is unique, meaning that what works for one may not work for another. So go for different horse bits for sale available in the market according to your horses. 

Different Types of Horse Bits

  1. Snaffle Bit: Amongst the utilized bits, there is the snaffle bit. It comprises a mouthpiece featuring a sometimes double joint in its center. This design allows for pressure on the corners of a horse’s mouth when riders pull on their reins. Snaffle bits are generally considered to be bits and are suitable for most horses.
  2. Pelham Bit: The Pelham bit is a combination bit that combines the actions of a snaffle and a curb bit. It has two sets of reins, one attached to the rein and the other to the curb rein. This type of bit gives the rider control by providing both pressure and leverage.
  3. Curb Bit: Curb bits have a slightly curved mouthpiece with a raised area in the middle called a port. They also have a shank that extends below the mouthpiece, which applies leverage when the rider pulls on the reins. Curb bits are regarded as more advanced than bits and are appropriate for riders with more experience.
  4. Gag Bit: The gag bit has a ring that is connected to the bridle with reins attached to it. When the rider pulls on these reins, it causes movement in the horse’s mouth, applying pressure to its pole and encouraging it to raise its head. This can be a choice for horses that tend to lean on or put weight on their forehand.
  5. Hackamore Bit: A hackamore bit is a bridle without any metal components used inside the horse’s mouth, offering an option for riding without using bits. Instead, it puts pressure on the horse’s nose, chin, and poll. Hackamores are a choice for horses that are sensitive or have mouth-related issues.

Finding the Perfect Match

Now that you have an understanding of the types of horse bits, it’s time to find the ideal fit for your horse. Here are some suggestions to consider;

  1. Seek Professional Advice: If you’re uncertain about which bit to choose, don’t hesitate to seek help from a professional. A knowledgeable trainer or experienced rider can provide insights and recommendations based on your horse’s needs.
  2. Take Your Horse’s Mouth into Account: The size of your horse’s mouth is a factor when selecting a bit. The bit should fit comfortably in the horse’s mouth without causing irritation or discomfort. If the bit is too small, it may. Rub against the horse’s mouth, while a bit that is too large could shift around excessively.
  3. Assess Your Riding Style: Your riding style and chosen discipline will also influence your choice of bit. For instance, if you specialize in dressage riding, you might require a bit that allows for communication and control. On the side, if you’re someone who enjoys trail riding, you might prefer a bit that promotes relaxation and a gentle touch.
  4. Experiment with Bits: It’s important to remember that each horse is unique, and what may work for one might not work for another. Don’t hesitate to try out types of bits to see how your horse responds. Pay attention to your horse’s reactions and behavior. Make adjustments accordingly.
  5. Keep the process in mind: Keep in mind that finding the horse bit is a process. As your horse develops and advances in its training, its needs may evolve. Regularly assess your horse’s comfort and response to the bit, making any adjustments.

Selecting the horse bit is essential for communication and control during riding sessions. By understanding the types of bits and considering both your horse’s requirements as well as your own preferences, you can find an ideal match. Seek guidance from professionals to evaluate your horse’s mouth structure along with your riding style, and don’t shy away from trying out bits until you discover the one that suits both you and your beloved equine companion best. Enjoy riding!

Continue Reading


Reasons to Buy OLED TVs: A Revolutionary Viewing Experience




In the ever-evolving landscape of television technology, OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) TVs have emerged as a revolutionary choice, captivating consumers with their superior picture quality, slim design, and innovative features. 

OLED technology has redefined how people experience television, offering an immersive and visually stunning viewing experience that was once considered unattainable. This article will explore why buying an OLED TV is smart for those seeking unparalleled entertainment.

1. Exceptional Picture Quality

In contrast to conventional LED/LCD TVs that depend on a backlight for screen illumination, every pixel within an OLED TV emits its illumination. This phenomenon yields genuine black depths, as individual pixels can be deactivated, resulting in limitless contrast ratios.

2. Perfect Blacks and Infinite Contrast

If you buy latest OLED tvs, you would first know that they are renowned for their ability to achieve perfect blacks. Since each pixel can be individually controlled to emit light or remain off, OLED screens can achieve a level of darkness that other display technologies simply cannot match. 

This attribute enhances the overall picture quality and contributes to a more immersive viewing experience, as it reduces the halo effect observed around bright objects on LCD screens.

3. Ultra-Thin Design

OLED technology enables TVs to be incredibly thin and lightweight. With no need for a bulky backlight, OLED TVs can be designed in ultra-slim profiles that add a touch of elegance to any living space. Mounting an OLED TV on the wall is a seamless process that makes it appear almost like a piece of art rather than a television. 

4. Wide Viewing Angles

OLED panels maintain consistent picture quality across wide viewing angles, unlike other display technologies. It means that whether you’re sitting directly in front of the TV or off to the side, the colors and contrast remain accurate, ensuring everyone in the room enjoys the same stunning visuals. 

5. Faster Response Times

OLED TVs boast faster response times compared to traditional LCD TVs. It leads to smoother motion handling, making them ideal for watching fast-paced action scenes, sports, and gaming. The reduced motion blur ensures that viewers can fully immerse themselves in the content without any distractions, and it’s a feature that gamers, in particular, can greatly appreciate.

6. Energy Efficiency

Since OLED TVs don’t require a backlight and can turn off pixels to achieve true black, they consume less energy when displaying darker scenes. This energy efficiency contributes to lower electricity bills and aligns with modern trends toward more environmentally friendly technology choices.

7. Future-Proof Technology

Opting for an OLED TV represents a strategic move towards future-proof technology. These TVs are adept at accommodating the evolving entertainment landscape, as the call for superior resolution and enhanced visual finesse shows no sign of abating.

OLED TVs seamlessly integrate with emerging technologies such as 4K, 8K, and HDR. This compatibility ensures you’ll experience the most cutting-edge content in its splendor.

8. Enhanced HDR Performance

HDR technology enriches television screens’ contrast and color precision, producing images that mirror real-life authenticity. OLED TVs demonstrate exceptional prowess in showcasing HDR content owing to their intrinsic capability to generate profound blacks and striking highlights concurrently.

9. Gaming Advantages

OLED TVs offer a smooth, immersive gaming experience with fast response times and impressive motion handling. In addition, achieving true black levels enhances the overall visual quality of games, adding to the realism and intensity of virtual worlds.

10. Aesthetic Appeal

Beyond the technical advantages, OLED TVs simply look stunning. Their sleek and futuristic design and exceptional picture quality make them a focal point in any room. Whether the TV is on or off, its presence adds a touch of sophistication to your living space.

The Unrivaled Advantages of OLED TVs

As the demand for higher quality and more immersive entertainment grows, OLED TVs stand at the forefront, redefining what’s possible and setting new standards for visual excellence. If you’re looking for a television that can truly bring your favorite movies, shows, and games to life, an OLED TV is undoubtedly a choice that won’t disappoint.

Continue Reading





 The NY NOW® SUMMER 2023 trade show took place August 13 to the 16, 2023 at the Javits Center. The show was smaller than in the past and all the exhibits were located on one floor. Exhibitors attended from all over the world.
Two product stood out for me. One was Hanglo. It ’s a closet hanger that has a light on top  and when opening a  closet door it illuminate the closet. It ’s motion activated with AAA Batteries included. It’s sold in packs of 2 and can be purchased on
The second product I really liked was a low calorie snack made of mushrooms. It’s called Popadelics and it’s a  bag of tasty mushroom chip. It comes in three flavors; Trippin’ Truffle Parm, Twisted Thai Chili and Red Rosemary and salt.
The NY NOW Winter show will come to the Javits Center February 4-7 2014.
Continue Reading


Hip Hop Comes To Times Square



The historic 50th Anniversary of Hip-Hop was on August 11. The official festivities kicked off with the Battle Champs competition sponsored by Snipes in Times Square August 13-15th.

They crowned the Kings and Queens of the MCs, DJs, graffiti artists, breakers and beatboxers as judged by some of the legends in each of these core elements of hip-hop.



These events are celebrating the anniversary and supporting the For the Culture Fund to give back to communities that supported hip-hop for five decades.

50th Anniversary of Hip-Hop merchandise from these and other suppliers will be featured at Macy’s, Walmart, Forever 21 and Amazon.

Continue Reading


Copyright © 2023 Times Square Chronicles